Prediction of Burning Injury Using Human Models Equipped with Instruments-Experimental EquipmentRelease time: 2014-11-19 16:09
This method is used to evaluate the protective properties of the test sample. It can be clothing or a full suit. Performance structure and design function of two materials. The specimens were placed in an adult-sized mannequin, exposed to ambient atmospheric conditions, and exposed to a laboratory simulated fire with controlled heat flux, duration, and flame distribution. During the testing process, data collection, calculation results, and preparation of test reports are programmed with computer hardware and software.
Heat, which passes through the test sample, will be measured by a heat flux sensor after the exposure transfer. These measurements will be used to calculate the second and third degrees and the total scalded area from the exposure. They can also be used to calculate time with pain and first degree burns. Test suits, test conditions, opinions and opinions for test purposes and identification. The test strip's response to exposure was recorded and included as part of the test report. The performance of this sample is represented by the total energy delivered, the burn area and the test of the sample in response to exposure.
5.1 Detection of mannequins
The shape and size that the upright mannequin adult form should use (see Figure 1). The structure of the mannequin should simulate the human body and should include the head, chest / back, abdomen / hips, arms, hands, legs, and feet. The flame retardant, thermally stable material, such as ceramic or glass fiber reinforced vinyl ester resin, should be constructed in a mannequin. The thickness of the shell should be at least 3mm.
A repeatable positioning system is required. It can be used on the floor by a pin locator, a portable rigid positioning frame and a light or laser beam to set the vertical direction and arm position.
The mannequin constructed should match the dimensions shown in Table 1.
Table 1-Male Dummy Size
Position size size mm error mm
1 Overall height 1830 ± 40
2 bust maximum 1025 ± 20
3Minimum waist 850 ± 15
4 Waist to heel 1150 ± 50
5Shoulder to wrist 610 ± 30
6 medial crotch leg 860 ± 40
7 hip maximum 1015 ± 20
8 center of neck back to waist 425 ± 20
9 The back of the neck spans the shoulders and arms to the wrist 830 ± 30
5.2 Heat flux sensor
The burn injury prediction system must use a large number of heat flux sensors that can directly measure the incident heat flux density or provide surface data that can be used to calculate the heat flux density under test conditions, on a human body model. This information is then used by a computer program to predict burn management. Described in burn calculation appendix C.
5.2.2 Number of heat flux sensors
The burn prediction system should use a minimum of 100 heat flux sensors. They should be evenly distributed in each area of the mannequin, as shown in Table 2.
Table 2 Flame distribution
Body area percentage
Hand / foot 0
Note: The number of sensors currently used on mannequins ranges from 110 to 126. Additional sensors can be added to hands and feet if needed.
5.2.3 Heat flow sensor measurement capability. Each heat flux sensor shall have the ability to measure incident heat flux densities ranging up to 200 kW / m2 with a range of 0 kW / m2. This range allows the exposure level to be set by a flame test of a naked mannequin using a heat flux sensor, and also measures the heat transfer to the mannequin instead of the sample.
5.2.4 Heat flow sensor structure. With known thermal characteristics, the structure of a heat flux sensor made from a material that can directly indicate the heat flux density or measure with a sensor temperature to represent the heat flux density and the time variation received by the sensor. The outer surface should be covered with a thin flat black high temperature paint (with absorption greater than 0.9). The time response of the heat flux sensor should be 0.1 seconds or less. A procedure is described in D.1.8.
Note: Sensors that have been successfully used include sensors from the Caldon River Calorimeter, Radon Calorimeter, and Skin Simulators.
5.2.5 Heat flow sensor calibration. The calibration of the sensors shall be in accordance with the procedures in Annex D.
5.3 Data acquisition system. The system should provide a means to obtain and store at least twice the measurement results from each sensor up to 120 data acquisition cycles per second. Other requirements for data collection are contained in Annex D
Note: Two readings per second The data acquisition rate from each sensor is the minimum necessary to obtain sufficient information. A sampling rate of five per sensor second is appropriate during the flame exposure period. Between 10 to 10 measurements per sensor second during which some laboratory samples. Minimum speed for two measurements per sensor second is after full flame exposure
5.4 Computer software programs
A computer software program that should use the output of a sensor capable of receiving the calculated heat flux density, (see 5.4.2), the occurrence of time to predict pain, first degree, second degree, and third degree burns, ( (See Section 5.4.3) and the predicted first, second, third, and total burn area (see 5.4.4). Appendix C provides background information for predicting burns, while Appendix E provides the necessary elements of a computer software program. References provide an operating system and other detailed information on numerical calculation methods to perform the necessary calculations.
5.4.2 Incidental heat flux calculation
The incident heat flux density is determined by a naked combustion in a computer software program. Each heat flux sensor has an associated mannequin surface area applied to the heat flux density measured on it. The reported value is the average of the uniform portion of naked exposure for each heat flux sensor of the area weighted average. This process is described in D.2.2.
The area associated with any heat flux sensor is determined by positioning equidistant heat flux sensor points to the surroundings. These points are connected by a straight line. Surround a specific heat flux sensor so that the area formed is its associated surface area.
5.4.3 Predicted Burn Calculations
Time to pain and time in the predicted first, second and third degree burns are calculated for each sensor by a computer software program.
5.4.4 Calculation of Burn Predicted Area
The sum of the areas represented by the receiving enough thermal sensors to produce a predicted second degree burn should predict the second degree burn area. The sum of the areas represented by the sensors that received enough heat to produce a predicted third degree burn should be the predicted area for third degree burns. The sum of these two aspects is the estimated total area of the burn from exposure to flash fire conditions.
Note: The prediction of first-degree burns is not included in this area calculation because the skin remains the same and receives relatively minor damage compared with second- and third-degree burn injuries. Prediction of first degree burns and / or time to pain can be set as optional information.
5.4.5 Other computer software functions
Computer software can also be used to specify and control operating procedures (see Chapter 8) to record test conditions (see 8.2.3) to ensure that safety requirements are met (see 8.2.4) and enter the sample response notes (see (See 8.2.8) and prepare a test report (see 8.2.9)
5.5 flame exposure chamber
A ventilated, fire-resistant enclosure with viewing windows and access doors (S) shall be provided with a mannequin and exposure device. It should be designed to allow natural air to flow into the room for exposure, and it should be equipped with an exhaust system that can quickly clear the indoor gas exposure and the data collection time has expired.
5.5.2 Laboratory size
The laboratory size should be large enough to provide flame exposure to the surface of the specimen and allow safe operation of the manikin for trimming without accidental vibration and movement around the burner. The minimum internal dimension of 2.1 meters wide is 2.1 meters long, and 2.1 meters high is necessary in order to have enough air to burn the flame and control.
5.5.3 Airflow chamber
The air in the laboratory and any free-flowing exposure period that occurs or enters or leaves the laboratory should be sufficient to achieve the required heat flux density required for the combustion process. Immediately after the data acquisition cycle, forced ventilation exhaust systems should be used for the rapid removal of combustion gas products. During the front exposure and data acquisition process, the forced air exhaust system should be turned off to provide a quiet atmosphere. Pressure release during exposure and passive supply of the required fuel to completely burn the air openings may be required to test the outside of the chamber.
5.5.4 Isolation room
The laboratory should separate from air flow than the free flow of air required for the combustion process, etc., so that pilot flames and exposure flames are not affected before and during test exposures, and during data collection.
5.5.5 Room exhaust system
A forced air exhaust system should have a minimum capacity equal to the volume of the chamber per minute in order to remove gaseous products from the test exposure. In addition, the forced air exhaust system can operate at a lower capacity to provide cooling air from the manikin and the heat flux sensor after the chamber has exhausted the combustion gases.
5.5.6 Safety devices in room
The exposure chamber should be equipped with sufficient safety devices and detectors to provide safe operation of the test equipment. These may include propane gas detectors, motion detectors, door magnetic detector seals, fire extinguishers, emergency stops, flame detectors, and any other equipment deemed necessary.
5.6 Fuel and delivery systems
5.6.1 General. The chamber should be equipped with fuel supply, delivery and burner systems to provide repeatable fire exposure.
5.6.2 Fuel. The fuel should be the requirements of ISO7941 that propane meets.
5.6.3 Conveying system. The system of pipes, pressure regulators, valves and pressure sensors should provide an ignition system and exposed torches for the safe delivery of gaseous fuel. This delivery system should be sufficient to provide a uniform heat flux density of at least 84 kW / m2 ± 2.5% for an exposure time of at least 8 seconds. Fuel delivery should be controlled to provide an exposure time at a set exposure time of ± 0.1 S.
Note: 1. This is a suitable delivery system to comply with local fire and electrical codes and standards.
An exposure time of 2.5 seconds or less is sufficient for testing single-layer garments such as work clothes. If a structural fire song and dance troupe will be tested, long exposures can be made as needed.
5.6.4 Burner system
The burner system shall include a burner to ignite the flame every time the burner is exposed, and fully burn to provide a uniform range of heat flux and flame distribution to meet the requirements of Article 184.108.40.206 and Annex D
Note: The number and location of the burners are specific to the flame exposure chamber, depending on the size of the chamber and the location of the passive air supply port. A minimum of 8 burners is necessary, but some laboratories use burners 12 to achieve a satisfactory flame distribution.
220.127.116.11 Ignition pilot flame
Each exposure burner should be equipped with an ignition pilot flame positioned near the burner's exit, rather than in the direct path of the flame, so as not to interfere with the exposed flame pattern. The pilot flame was ignited by a spark ignition system and the presence of an auxiliary flame for each function exposure burner should be visually confirmed before opening the exposure fuel supply valve. Auxiliary flames should be interlocked to the gas supply valves of the burner to prevent premature or incorrect opening of these valves.
18.104.22.168 Burner type
For large, igniting combustion air, an industrial-style propane burner should be positioned on a dummy to produce a uniform laboratory simulated flash fire. These burners will produce a large yellow flame. If desired, this gas jet can be modified or deleted for the fuel-air mixture produced by the yellow flame. A single jet nozzle has an inner diameter of 0.8 mm to 1.0 mm and has been found to produce a suitable flame.
The burner should be used and positioned so as to produce a satisfactory exposure in Annex D that has reached the specified exposure and uniformity with eight burners, one located at the level of the manikin at the knee and each of 1 The quadrants are located at the thigh level in each quadrant (see Figure 1). Additional burners can be added such that satisfactory flame distribution cannot be obtained with 8 burners.
22.214.171.124 Burner position
The position of the burner should be such that the average heat flux density of the measuring arms, torso, thighs and calves (shanks) is ± 15% of the average heat flux density of the entire human body model measured in each case within 4 seconds Clock's naked corrected exposure.
NOTE: Records of location and burner orientation should be kept and established to check their positioning and reposition them if necessary. An original positioning method for burners is given in clause D.2.
126.96.36.199 Burner operating instructions
Procedural instructions are provided by the testing laboratory and are strictly followed to ensure safety testing. These should include the exhaust of the chamber from any previous test series, check the gas detection instruments to ensure that there is no accumulated fuel due to leaks, ensure that there are no personnel in the chamber when the ignition system is activated to initiate the test during the test Separating the chamber contains the heat of the exposed test exposure and the combustion products produced, and a ventilated chamber.
188.8.131.52 Fire extinguishing system. The laboratory can be equipped with a fire suppression system consistent with an appropriate local fire safety code.
184.108.40.206 Operator's personal protection. Care should be taken to prevent personnel from entering into contact with combustion products, fumes and fumes caused by flame exposure. Exposure to gaseous products is prevented by adequate ventilation of the chamber. Appropriate personal protective equipment should be used to change the mannequin, handle exposed specimens, and clean the dummy while wearing it while working in the flame exposure chamber under test.
5.7 Image recording equipment. A system shall be provided for recording visualized images of the manikin before, during and after flame exposure. The front of the dummy should be the original record of the burn exposure, with a record behind the warm dummy as an option.
5.8 Safety checklist
A checklist should be included in the computer operating system to ensure that all safety functions are met before flame exposure can occur. The list should include, but is not limited to, the following:
1) Confirm that the mannequin is wearing the sample correctly;
2) Confirm that the door of the room is closed;
3) Confirm that no one is in the exposure room in the flame;
4) Confirm compliance with all safety requirements.
5.9 Humidity control zone: The zone maintained at (20 ± 2) ° C and (65 ± 5)% relative humidity should be set. It should be large enough for the hanging sample to circulate with the surrounding air.
Prediction of Burning Injury Using Human Models Equipped with Instruments-Sample Preparation
6 samples and specimens
6.1.1 Specimen type
The type of test strip depends on the purpose of the test, as described in 6.1.2 to 6.1.4.
6.1.2 Appraisal / comparison of clothing / synthetic materials. When used to evaluate materials, the specimens must be the same design and size. The design of standard clothing is suitable to be described using size 6.3.
6.1.3 Clothing / Integrated Design Evaluation / Comparison. When used in an evaluation design, test samples must be constructed of the same material, which is a standard sized and beneficial design feature.
6.1.4 Appraisal of apparel / combined material specifications. When used to evaluate clothing or combination materials for a specific application or in a specification, the test specimen should be such a material and the clothing / combination design represents the intended application.
6.2 Number of samples. Test at least three samples from a laboratory sampling unit.
6.3 Standard clothing design. Standard garments should have a full-length metal zipper on the front set, no pockets, sleeves or shorts cuffs, and no elastic waist, meeting the size requirements provided in Table 3 (after those samples are not specified for limited use) The garments specified in Table 3 are convenient relative to the specific mannequin size used in the test. The structure is intentionally simple to minimize manufacturing costs. Standard clothing should be used to evaluate / compare materials, as in 6.1.2. Other designs are tested, as outlined in 6.1.3 and 6.1.4.
Table 3-Standard size clothing comparison materials
Size / location minimum clothing comfort
(Difference from manikin size)
mm maximum garment comfort
(Difference from manikin size)
Max Bust 200230
Minimum Waist 95115
Max hips 210230
Sleeve length (shoulder top along wrist arm) 05
Leg length (crotch hem along the inside of the thigh) 0-20
Side length (waist to hem along outer legs) 0-20
7 Sample preparation
Each specimen not specified for limited use shall be cleaned and in accordance with ISO6330. Once dried, the following procedure is used as a performance reference standard or as specified by the manufacturer.
Other pretreatments can be used as long as they are described in detail in the test report and all samples tested in the test series are exposed to the same pretreatment conditions. If the evaluation is for end-use performance specifications, the pretreatment should meet the specifications. Garments are designated for limited use and must not be washed or conditioned before drying.
Note: 1. Washing is to remove textile material from construction garments / collections that may have been removed from preparations that may be used in the finishing process.
2. Limited-use clothing is those that can be worn for specific purposes, such as cleaning water tanks, pesticides or other harmful chemicals, etc. They are usually worn in other protective clothing and discarded after use.
Article source: Standard Group (Hong Kong) Limited
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