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Analysis of the characteristics of car test dummy

Release time: 2015-05-04 11:56

Car test dummy is also known as crash test dummy. Collision simulation dummy was originally used in aircraft-related places such as ejection seats and parachutes. In 1960, the United States first developed a car crash test dummy dummy VIP, and subsequently, in the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) standard for the 50th dummy dummy (that is, the 50th percentile dummy-according to Statistics show that 50% of men in the United States have lower body weight and higher physical parameters than the dummy.) Size, weight, spring constant, etc. are specified.
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With the deepening of the research on the mechanism of human injury in bionics and collision accidents, the research and development of simulated dummy has also made new progress: In 1971, Hybrid I dummy I was developed. Based on this, the head of Hybrid I The neck, shoulder, spine, and knee were improved, and the configuration of the test equipment was enhanced. The Hybrid II dummy II was developed in 1972, and the Hybrid was included in the FMVSS208 standard (occupant collision protection) in 1973. The II 50th dummy is used as a standard facility for assessing the occupant's collision protection performance in automobile crash tests, and the standard for the dummy is established in the federal regulations. The Hybrid II test dummy is used as a test dummy to determine the human injury index in the FMVSS 208 standard It is also used in FMVSS 212 and 301.
In 1976, General Motors made a number of improvements to the Hybrid II's neck, chest, and knees, and developed a hybrid III dummy III that is closer to the characteristics of the human body. The installable data acquisition channel can be as much as needed. More than 100, greatly exceeding Hybrid II, to meet the needs of further research. And the improvement of the neck and other places makes the value of the injury index measured by the Hybrid III dummy higher than that of the Hybrid II, which places higher requirements on the vehicle's occupant protection performance.
On July 25, 1986, the United States revised 49CFR Part 572, which added a new section on Hybrid III, and stipulated in the FMVSS 208 standard from October 23, 1986 to August 31, 1991. Vehicle crash tests can choose to use either Hybrid II or Hybrid III dummy, and since September 1, 1991, Hybrid III will replace Hybrid II and be the only test dummy to verify that the vehicle meets FMVSS208 performance requirements Later, due to some practical considerations, it was decided to postpone the replacement date to September 1, 1997.
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In order to further meet the needs of automobile crash test research and biomechanical research, the United States has developed a test dummy family. In addition to the Hybrid II and Hybrid III required by regulations, we have also developed and manufactured dummy SIDs and child dummyes for automobile side collisions.
European countries are also conducting research and development of car crash test dummy. The R16 clause of the ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) Regulation (Agreement on Uniform Conditions for Certification of Automotive Seat Belts and Their Supporting Systems) stipulates in Appendix One-leg dummy (dummy weighing 74.5kg and 175cm in height) used in Europe. This dummy is only used in the dynamic test of seat belts in ECE R16. The test only requires high-speed photography to measure the bone gain and displacement of the chest. . On the other hand, EuroSID dummy for side impact has also been developed in Europe and has been used in crash tests, but there is no corresponding regulatory description.
Regarding test dummy for automobile collision, there is no unified international standard so far. Hybrid II and Hybrid III dummy are the most used in various countries, including major auto companies in the world including European Mercedes-Benz and Volkswagen. Hybrid II and Hybrid III dummies are widely used in automobile crash test research.
According to human body types, dummy can be divided into adult dummy and child dummy. According to body size, adult dummy is divided into male dummy of medium stature, female dummy of small stature and male dummy of large stature. The most commonly used dummies in car crash tests represent the average figure of the 50th percentile adult male in Europe and the United States. In order to consider different human body shapes in the design, and according to the two ends of the human body distribution in Europe and the United States, small stature and large stature dummy were developed. The small female dummy represents the body shape of the female adult in the 5th percentile in Europe and the United States; the large male dummy represents the body shape of the 95th male in the Europe and the United States. The height and weight of the child dummy are the average height and weight of the children in the specified age group, regardless of gender.
According to the type of impact test, the dummy can be divided into a frontal impact dummy and a side impact dummy. There are now three side-impact dummies allowed to be sold as merchandise: SID, EuroSID, and BIOSID. These three dummy are developed according to the figure of the 50th percentile adult male. SID is a test dummy specified by the US side impact test regulations, and EuroSID is a test dummy specified by the side impact test regulations of Europe, Japan and other countries. .


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