Application analysis of automobile side crash dummyRelease time: 2015-07-10 09:37
The purpose of formulating automobile side collision regulations is to reduce the risk of serious injuries and fatal injuries to passengers in side collision accidents. According to the dummy acceleration measured during the test of the regulations, the requirements for automobile crash performance, side door reinforcement and other requirements To improve the safety of side collisions. Because automobile accidents cause huge losses to human beings, developed countries in the automotive industry around the world have established regulations accordingly, making mandatory requirements for automobile collision safety. But in general, there are three major systems of representative automotive safety technology regulations, namely the United States, Europe, and Japan technical regulations systems, each of which has different characteristics.
Classification of car side crash dummy Most car crash dummy are made of metal and plastic. The chest cavity is made of steel, the scapula is made of aluminum, and the pelvis is made of plastic. The simulator not only has the same shape and internal organs as a real person, but Complex spine, ribs, and synthetic muscles. On the dummy's body, there are various sensors (approximately 60 sensors are installed), which can provide data for more than 180 channels and refresh the data at a rate of 2,000 times / s.
Dummy's head: The dummy's "bone" is made of aluminum alloy, and the outer surface is covered with rubber skin. The inside of the bone is an acceleration sensor to measure the lateral acceleration and force of the dummy's head during the impact. Happening. Dummy's neck: The neck is equipped with sensors to measure the bending, shearing and pulling force on the neck during a collision. Dummy chest: The chest is made of steel ribs and rubber skin. The ribs are equipped with sensors that can record the amount of rib deformation, which can record the changes in impact pressure and acceleration. The dummy's abdomen and pelvis: The dummy is equipped with sensors on the abdomen and pelvis, which will record the force of the abdomen during the collision and judge whether there is a risk of fracture and dislocation based on the data.
The world's first dummy for side collision was born in the late 1970s. The US-SID dummy was jointly developed by the University of Michigan in the United States and the US NHTSA (see Figure 1). The US-SID dummy also uses a lot of Hybrids. -IU (frontal impact dummy) components, such as the head, but improved due to different types of impact. The first EuroSID-I dummy in Europe (see Figure 2) was born in the mid-1980s. After a series of tests and improvements, an upgraded version of the EuroSID-I dummy was launched in the 1990s. This is the EuroSID-11 dummy (ES-2) currently used by EuroNCAP (see Figure 3). GM also introduced a dummy called BioSID in the 1990s (see Figure 4). This dummy is more advanced than US-SID and EuroSID, but it is not currently widely used. In addition, there are the WorldSID of the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the SID-1I dummy of USCAR.
Analysis of automobile side impact dummy The side impact dummy used in the US and Europe in the side impact test are US-SID dummy and EuroSID-I dummy respectively. Both dummies are male 50 percentile occupants. Although both are carried out on the basis of Hybrid-III (frontal collision dummy) and some parts of Hybrid-III are adopted, they are very different in structure. Due to the structural differences between the two types of dummy, the two are different in the assessment of collision damage value. The United States is based on the acceleration of a dummy's chest, and the European EuroSID-I is evaluated based on the size of the chest deformation. The EuroSID-I dummy in Europe is more in line with the characteristics of China's human body. Therefore, the side collision dummy used in China's side collision test is now the EuroSID-I dummy in Europe. With the exception of the United States, most countries use European side-impact dummies. At present, the physical characteristics of the dummy for side collision are mainly simulated by the human body characteristics of western countries, and the test dummy used in China are also imported. There is a problem of uniform global standards.
In fact, since the beginning of the development of EuroSID-I, the worldwide discussion and research work on side crash test dummy has never stopped. The problems are mainly concentrated on: 1) the unification of side collision dummy, requiring a universal side collision dummy that can basically reflect the characteristics of different races around the world, so that automobile and restraint system manufacturers can reduce the requirements of different regulations in different countries. The development cost required and required; 2) The bionic nature of the dummy, how much the existing response data of the side collision dummy after being impacted are similar to the real person, and which biomechanical data is used to evaluate the bionic nature of the dummy; 3) How to convert the response of the dummy during the crash test into the risk of injury to specify the safety performance of the car or restraint system. While conducting discussions and research in various countries, after using EuroSID-I, many users found the following shortcomings in the mechanical structure of EuroSID-I: 1) The phenomenon of "flat top" of the rib displacement curve could not reach its prescribed range; 2) The protruding back plate is easily inserted into the seat back; 3) The plastic sacrum in the pelvis is easily deformed; 4) The thigh comes into contact with the pubic load sensor; 5) The clavicle is tied to the shoulder assembly; 6) The lumbar spine Make a sound; 7) The pubic load sensor waveform spikes due to the collision between the knees. At the same time, the user also proposed the update of the abdomen sensor, and thought that the calibration test of the abdomen and pelvis was too demanding.
These questions and suggestions raised by EuroSID-I users have forced EEVC to improve the EuroSID-I dummy. As part of the SID-2000 program funded by EEVC, Europe has started the development of Es-2 since 1998. In January 2000, ES-2 was successfully produced and assembled by FTSS companies in Britain, the United States, and Europe, and passed the corresponding testing tests, and began trials in Europe, the United States, and Japan. The results show that its performance is better than EuroSID— I. It was learned from the International Standardization Conference in 2002 that (EuroSID-11) ES-2 has been recognized by European countries and is intended to be written into the EEC Directive and ECE Regulations to replace EuroSID-I. The United States and Japan also agreed to try it out for a period of time before making a decision. Therefore, ES-1 will likely become the first temporary side collision dummy in the world.
From a long-term perspective, the next generation of side impact dummy will be the WorldSID developed by ISO / TC22 / SCl2 / WG5, which is also a 50 th percentile male side impact dummy, as shown in Figure 6, weight 76.7 kg, the data channel will be up to about 200, it is the most sensitive car side crash test dummy ever felt, 212 sensors and memory chips all over its body can be super high at 1,000 times / s The frequency records everything that happened instantly. Unlike traditional dummies, its artificial bones and organs flex and bounce like real human organs when they collide, thus realistically simulating injuries such as abrasions, fractured ribs, spleen and liver rupture. This is the first dummy to be recognized by authoritative crash test agencies in the United States and Europe. It can save car manufacturers billions of dollars in research and development costs, and it can also awaken global automotive companies' attention to safety. It will replace the current European side collision dummy.
The WorldSID development plan is to develop a new side impact dummy that is used worldwide and represents advanced technology. There are two motives for making this plan: one is to design a more advanced side crash dummy based on a better understanding of the response of the dummy in a side collision, and to provide more measures to improve the protection of the occupants of the vehicle; World dummy can avoid using different dummy in different regions. The project was initiated by the ISO organization and has the support of governments, car manufacturers and suppliers from all over the world. At the same time, the research results of the EEVC SID-2000 plan and cooperation with the IHRA Biomechanics and Side Collision Working Group ensure the WorldSID plan The smooth development of WoHdSID in 2007 has been completed and will soon be applied worldwide.
For a side collision dummy, the biological fit of the side collision dummy is directly related to whether the safety of the side collision of the car can be correctly evaluated, and therefore whether the life and property of the occupant or pedestrian can be effectively protected. Table 2 shows the evaluation scope of the dummy's biological fitness level. Table 3 is a comparison table of the biological fit of a side impact dummy.
It can be seen from Tables 2 and 3 that the biological fit of the WorldSID side collision dummy has reached an excellent level, which is a universal standard dummy that will be widely used in various countries in the world in the future, which provides a uniformity for future research on the side safety of automobiles in various countries in the world Evaluation criteria.
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