Research on R & D Process of Car DummyRelease time: 2015-08-19 09:09
In recent years, China's automobile production and sales have continued to grow rapidly. In 2011, the production and sales reached 18.42 million and 18.51 million, respectively. In 2012, the production and sales reached 19.92718 million and 19.93064 million (Note: data from China Automobile Industry Association). There are more than 100 million cars, accounting for about 10% of the world's total. In contrast, in 2012, US car sales were 144.9 thousand units, and EU 27 countries ’light vehicle registrations fell 8.2% year-on-year to 12.05 million units. China's automobile production and sales market is so huge. Relatively speaking, China has not established its own system of car crash dummies. The dummy used has adopted EU and American standards, which has affected the accuracy and scientificity of China's automotive safety performance assessment. This article makes a preliminary study on the system of crash dummy systems in foreign automobile safety fields, and puts forward the basic ideas of constructing a system of automobile crash dummy systems in China.
Foreign legal system (1) The United States The United States began to develop car crash dummy in 1960. After more than 50 years of development, the United States has developed a family of test dummy. The legal system for car crash dummy in the United States is led by the Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and is roughly divided into three levels. The first level is the car collision safety standard that requires dummy to perform experiments at the level of federal regulations, including CFR 571.201 "Post-collision passenger protection", CFR 571.208 "Passenger collision protection", CFR 571.213 "Child restraint system", CFR 571.214 "Side "Crash Protection", etc .; the second level is to specify the types and calibration standards of the crash dummy, including CFR 572 "Anthropomorphic Test Device"; the third level is the drawing standards of the crash dummy, including SA series drawing standards.
CFR 571.201 "Occupant protection in interior impact": This standard regulates the performance requirements for passenger safety protection when a vehicle is hit. It is applicable to passenger cars and multi-purpose passenger cars with a total weight not exceeding 4,536 kg. , Trucks and buses.
· CFR 571.208 "OccupantCrash Protection": This standard regulates the performance requirements for the safety protection of occupants when a vehicle collides. By improving the crashworthiness of the vehicle, it can reduce the number of casualties and injuries. This standard applies to passenger cars, multi-purpose passenger cars, trucks and passenger cars.
CFR 571.213 "Child restraint systems" (Child restraint systems): This standard specifies the requirements for child restraint systems used in cars and aircraft, and is designed to reduce child casualties in car and aircraft accidents. This standard applies to child restraint systems installed in passenger cars, multi-purpose passenger cars, trucks, passenger cars and airplanes.
CFR 571.214 "Side impact protection" (Side impact protection): This standard regulates the performance requirements for occupant protection during side impacts, and aims to reduce casualties and injuries. This standard applies to passenger cars, multi-purpose passenger cars, trucks and passenger cars with a total weight not exceeding 4,536 kg (10,000 pounds), except for walk-in trucks.
CFR 572 "Anthropomorphictest devices" (Anthropomorphictest devices): This regulation describes the requirements for the calibration of anthropomorphic test devices, used for compliance testing of safety standards for motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment. CFR 572 "Anthropomorphic Test Device" stipulates a total of 18 types of test dummy, which are respectively used in CFR 571.201 "Protection of Crash Members", CFR 571.208 "Passenger Crash Protection", CFR 571.213 "Child Restraint System" and CFR 571.214 "Side Impact Protection 》 Four crash tests. See Table 1 for the types of dummy used in the four crash tests.
Dummy design drawings (SA and other series standards): Dummy design drawings are the core technical indicators of dummy production, including the size standards and quality of each part of the dummy, skin and bone density, etc. The dummy's design drawings are stored in the Library of the National Archives and Records Administration in the Washington area, and are also archived in the Office of the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
(2) EU countries actively carry out research and development of car crash test dummy. The test dummy required by EU regulations are applied to ECE R16 respectively.
"Safety belts, restraint systems, child restraint systems for adult occupants of motor vehicles", ECE-R44
Child Restraints for Motor Vehicles, Child Restraints, ECE-R94 Frontal Impact, ECE-R95 Side Impact, ECE / TRANS / 180 / Add.9 "Pedestrian safety" (Pedestriansafety) the above five kinds of crash tests. See Table 2 for the five types of dummy used in the crash test.
· ECE-Rl6 Safety belts and restraint systems for adult occupants (Safety-belts, restraint systems, child restraint systems): This regulation applies to the installation of automobile safety belts and restraint systems.
· ECE-R44 Child Restraints for Motor Vehicles: This regulation applies to child occupant restraint systems installed on motor vehicles with more than three wheels, but it does not apply to children installed on folding seats or side seats Constraint system.
· ECE-R 9 4 Frontal Impact (Fronta lImpact): This regulation applies to M1 motor vehicles with a total mass not exceeding 2.5 tons. Other manufacturers' models can also refer to it.
· ECE-R95 Side Impact Occupant Protection (Side Impact): This regulation applies to M1 and N1 vehicles whose distance between the lowest point R and the ground does not exceed 700 mm when its mass is the reference mass.
ECE / TRANS / 180 / Add.9 Pedestrian safety: This regulation applies to the pedestrian safety protection performance of vehicles.
The above-mentioned EU regulations, in addition to stipulating the vehicle's collision safety performance, also specify and describe the dummy used in the annex.
China's car crash dummy system Our country's car crash dummy specification system is mainly reflected in national standards. A total of 12 types of test dummy are specified, all of which refer to foreign standards and are applied to passenger protection in frontal collision of passenger cars (GB 11551- 2003), occupant protection for side collisions (GB 20071-2006), restraint system for child occupants of motor vehicles (GB 27887-2011), and collision protection for pedestrians (GB / T 24550-2009). See Table 3 for the types of dummy used in the four crash tests.
· "Passenger Protection for Passenger Cars in Frontal Impact" (GB 11551-2003): This standard specifies the technical requirements and test methods for passenger protection of front outer seats during frontal collisions of vehicles. It is applicable to M1 vehicles.
· "Passenger Protection for Vehicle Side Collisions" (GB 20071-2006): This standard specifies the requirements and test procedures for vehicles to perform side collisions, and also changes to vehicle types, three-dimensional H-point devices, moving deformation barriers, and side collision leave. People have stipulated that it is applicable to M1 and N1 vehicles with the distance between the R point of the lowest seat and the ground not exceeding 700 mm when its quality is the reference quality.
· "Restraint system for child occupants of motor vehicles" (GB 27887-2011): This standard specifies the terms and definitions of the restraint system for child occupants of motor vehicles (hereinafter referred to as child restraint system), installation and fixing requirements on vehicles, constraints The structure of the system, as well as the performance requirements and test methods for the restraint system assembly and its component parts, are applicable to restraint systems for child occupants installed on motor vehicles with more than three wheels, but not for folding seats or sideways. Child restraint system on the seat.
· "Pedestrian Collision Protection for Automobiles" (GB / T 24550-2009): This standard specifies the technical requirements and test methods for pedestrian collision protection, and is applicable to M1 vehicles with a maximum total design weight greater than 500 kg.
Preliminary Thoughts on Automobile Collision Dummy in China (1) The time for China to conduct research on automobile collision dummy is mature. While the United States established a car safety and recall system in the 1960s, it began to develop car crash dummies. At that time, the annual production of American cars was more than 10 million. In recent years, China's automobile production and sales have increased significantly. It is predicted that China's automobile output will reach 19.6 million in 2013. At the same time, various negative problems brought about by the quality and safety of automobile products have become increasingly prominent. According to statistics from the Ministry of Public Security, a total of 238,351 road traffic accidents occurred in China in 2009, resulting in 67,759 deaths, 275,125 injuries, and direct economic losses of 910 million yuan, some of which were caused by vehicle defects. Every year, nearly 20 million vehicles in China are evaluated for crash safety using foreign crash dummy. The height, weight, bones and other parameters of the human body in China are significantly different from those in Europe and America. Therefore, the research on car crash dummies in China is an inevitable demand for China's automobile industry and economic development, and it also meets the needs of China's market supervision.
(2) China already has the technical foundation for developing car crash dummies. Car crash dummy is a huge project, which involves the collection, processing, processing of massive basic data, the manufacture of dummy, and even the development of digital dummy. In 1980, China established the National Ergonomics Standardization Technical Committee, and later established the Ergonomics Laboratory. It is currently the largest open ergonomics comprehensive experimental research base in China. It has initially formed the shape, strength, and movement. Comprehensive experimental research capabilities on human factors such as human, physical, sensory, and interactive behaviors. At the same time, some universities and research institutions are conducting research in related areas. If China can concentrate on the research advantages of all parties and establish a research alliance on automobile crash dummies, it will have sufficient technical foundation.
(3) Constructing the institutional framework of China's automobile crash dummy. In the study of China's automobile crash dummy, we should refer to foreign data collection methods to collect human body parameters in China, including human body sizes of different genders and different ages, and main feature points, masses, inertia, density, etc. of each part to create a set of Car crash dummy family. In terms of constructing a car crash dummy system in China, it is recommended that China refer to the US legislative experience and integrate the calibration and drawing specifications of the dummy into one calibration standard and a set of drawing specifications. Figure 1 shows the construction of a car crash dummy specification system in China.
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